Chemistry Mnemonics

Learning Chemistry can often be tough especially for beginners. We have collected a list of chemistry Mnemonics to help you with learning Chemistry. Remember you can develop your own Chemistry Mnemonics or modify the ones we have provided to help you better learn Chemistry.

Chemistry is often a very difficult subject for many of us. It is not easy for all of us to comprehend the difficult topics and trends in chemistry. Chemistry Mnemonics tends to make these complex topics easier by providing different mnemonics to understand and remember difficult chemistry concepts.

Remember you can develop your own Chemistry Mnemonics or modify the ones we have provided to help you better learn Chemistry. Mnemonics are meant to help you remember long term and not just memorize for a test and forget about it. If you take the time to practice these mnemonics, they will help you build strong fundamentals of chemistry and build a lifetime understanding of some of the most important concepts of Chemistry.

 

 

Acids

Always remember!

Care must be take while diluting an acid. One should never add water to acid, as it will make the acid to splash out due to the excess heat produced and cause severe chemical burns. Rather, the acid should be added to water, slowly and with constant stirring, for diluting an acid. This can be remembered with the following mnemonics.

  • Always do things as you oughta

Add the acid to the water

If you think your life’s too placid

Add the water to the acid

 

  • Acid to Water; All is Well.

Water to Acid; What an Accident![1]

Cations and Anions

Cations are positively (+) charged ions while anions are negatively (-) charged. This can be remembered with the help of the following mnemonics.

  • Cats have paws ⇔ Cations are pawsitive.
  • Ca+ionThe letter t in cation looks like a + (plus) sign.
  • An anion is a negative ion. (Anegativeion ⇒ Anion)
  • Kathy is Positive , Annie is Negative( if you have friends with names similar to these, who are positive and negative)

Redox reactions


A redox reaction is a chemical reaction in which there is a change in oxidation state of atoms participating in the reaction.

Ions

An atom (or ion) whose oxidation number increases in a redox reaction is said to be oxidized (and is called a reducing agent). It is accomplished by loss of one or more electrons. The atom whose oxidation number decreases gains (receives) one or more electrons and is said to be reduced. This relation can be remembered by the following mnemonics.

  • Leo says Ger! or Leo the lion, Ger! can be used to represent Loss of electron is oxidation; Gain of electron isreduction.
  • Oil Rig: Oxidation is loss; Reduction is gain (of electrons).

Electrodes

An electrode in which oxidation takes place is called an anode while in that which reduction takes place is called cathode. This applies for both electrolytic and electrochemical cells, though the charge on them reverses. The red cat and an ox mnemonics are useful to remember the same.

 

  • Red cat: Reduction at cathode

An ox: Anode for oxidation

  • The words oxidation and anode, both begin with vovels.

Also, both reduction and cathode begin with consonants.

−ate ions

Sulfate Phosphate Carbonate Chlorate Bromate Iodate Nitrate

  • Super Popeye Constantly Clubbed Brutus In Nevada[10]

Nitrate Bromate Carbonate Iodate Chlorate Chromate Sulfate Phosphate

  • Nick Brit the Camel ate an Inky Clam with Creams for Supper in Phoenix

Number of consonants denotes number of oxygens. Number of vowels denotes negative charge quantity.

Electronegativity

Fluorine >; Oxygen >; Nitrogen >; Clorine >; Bromine >; Iodine >; Sulphur >; Carbon >; Hydrogen≥Phosphorous

  • Pronounce: FONClBrISCHP
  • Flaming Oxygen Nice Clear Bright I Suspect Canned Hydrogen

Electrochemical series

Potassium >; Calcium >; Sodium >; Magnesium >; Aluminium >; Zinc >; Iron >; Tin >; Lead >; Hydrogen >;Copper >; Silver >; Gold

  • Paddy Could Still Marry A Zulu In The Lovely Honolulu Causing Many Strange Gazes.
  • Please Stop Calling Me A Crazy Zombie If That Large Hippo Can’t Swim, Glug, glug.

Activity series

K >; Na >;Mg >; Al >;Zn >; Cr >; Fe >; Pd >; H >; Cu >; Au.

  • Kangaroos Naturally Muck About in Zoos For Purple Hippos Chasing Aardvarks
  • Katty’s Naughty Cat Mingled with Alice and Zarina; Fearlessly Plundering Her Cupboard of Silver.

Potassium >; Sodium >; Calcium >; Magnesium >; Aluminum >; Zinc >; Iron >; Tin >; Lead >; Hydrogen >;Copper >; Mercury >; Silver.

  • Popular Scientists Can Make A Zoo In The Low Humid Country More Satisfactorily.

Diatomic molecules

Molecules exhibiting diatomic structures can be remembered through the following mnemonics.

(Hydrogen, Oxygen, Nitrogen, Fluorine, Chlorine, Bromine, Iodine)

  • I Have No Bright Or Clever Friends
  • Have No Fear Of Ice Cold Beer
  • Help Our Needy Class Find Brains Immediately
  • BrINClHOF: say Brinkelhof
  • I Bring Clay For Our New House
  • Have No Fear Of Cute, Innocent Baby twins!
  • Imagine all of the diatomic elements highlighted on the periodic table. They should make a seven shape starting with atom number 7. And there is a total of 7 (including hydrogen).

Hydrogen Bonds

Hydrogen forms hydrogen bonds with three elements which are nitrogen(Noxygen(O) and fluorine(F). The names of these elements can be remembered by the following mnemonic.

  • Hydrogen is FON! (fun)

Electromagnetic spectrum

In the order of increasing frequency or decreasing wavelength of electromagnetic waves

Radio waves, Microwavess, Infrared, Visible light, Ultraviolet, X-Rays, Gamma Rays

  • Ronald McDonald Invented Very Unusual & eXcellent Gherkins

In the order of increasing wave length

  • Good Xylophones Use Very Interesting Musical Rhythms

 

Organic chemistry

Nomenclature

Carboxylic acids

Common names of homogeneous aliphatic carboxylic acids,

Formic, Acetic, Propionic, Butyric, Valeric, Caproic

  • Frogs Are Polite, Being Very Courteous

Dicarboxylic acids

The sequence of dicarboxylic acids can be remembered with following mnemonics.

Oxalic, Malonic, Succinic, Glutaric, Adipic, Pimelic, Suberic, Azelaic, Sebacic

  • Oh My Such, Good Apples[22]
  • Oh My Stars, Green Apples
  • Oh My, Such Good Apple Pi.e., Sweet As Sugar

Aromatic compounds

m-directing groups

Quaternary aminoEsterSulfonic acidNitroCarbonylCarboxylCyano

(-NR3+)(-COOR)(-SO3H)(-NO2)(-CHO)(-COOH)(-CN)

  • Queen Elizabeth Second’s Navy Commands, Controls, Communicates[24]

o,p-directing groups

AlkylHalogenAlkoxylAminoHydroxylAmidePhenyl

(R)(X)(OR)(-NH2-NHR-NR2)(OH)(NHCOR(C6H5)

  • AHA AHA P

Note: -NH2,-NHR and NR2 are para directing groups but not -NR3+

Atomic orbital

Sequence of orbitals

Further information: Spectroscopic_notation#Mnemonic

s p d f g h i k

  • Sober Physicists Don’t Find Giraffes Hiding In Kitchens

Note: After the k shell, they follow alphabetical order (skipping p as it came earlier)[1]

Aufbau principle

1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 4s2 3d10 …

The order of sequence of atomic orbitals (according to Madelung rule or Klechkowski rule) can be remembered by using the following visual mnemonics

 

Order in which orbitals are arranged by increasing energy according to the Madelung rule. Each diagonal red arrow corresponds to a different value of n + l.

 

Another version of the visual mnemonic for the Madelung rule

Mohs scale of mineral hardness

To remember the Mohs hardness of minerals

Talc(1)Gypsum(2)Calcite(3)Fluorite(4)Apatite(5)Orthoclase(6)Quartz(7)Topaz(8)Corundum(9)Diamond(10)

Tall Gene Calls Florence At Our Quarters To Correct Dumbness.[1]

Periodic table

Periods

Periods 1, 2 and 3

H He Li Be B C N O F Ne Na Mg Al Si P S Cl Ar K Ca

  • Little Ben Became Charlie’s Number One Fighting Nemesis.

Native Magpies Always Sit Peacefully Searching Clear Areas.[25]

  • Happy Henry Likes Beer But Could Not Obtain Four Nuts.

Naughty Magpies Always Sing Perfect Songs Clawing Ants[26]

  • Here He Lies Beneath Bed Clothes, Nothing On, Feeling Nervous.

Naughty Margaret Always Sighs, “Please Stop Clowning Around.”[27]

  • Hi Hello Little Beryll Brown Cracking Nuts On Friday .

Nellie’s Naughty Magpie Always Sings Pop Songs Clearly

After Killing Cathy[27]

  • Hi! He Lies Because Boron CanNot Oxidize Fluorine. Necromantic Nato Mg (abbv. for make good)

All Silicon Ports. Superman Clean Argon’s K-Capture.[28]

  • Happy Harry Listens B B C Network Over France Nevertheless Nothing More Arose So Peter Stopped CleaningAirgun K Ca.[29]
  • Harry Helped Little Benny Balmer Carry Neat Oranges From Neptune’s Natural Menagerie Always SingingPolite Sonnets Clearly Arf Key Casually.
  • Ha. Healthy Little Beggar Boys Catching Newts Or Fish[30]
  • Hell, Here Little Beatniks Brandish Countless Number Of Flick kNives.[31]

Period 4

K (Potassium) Ca Sc Ti V Cr Mn Fe Co Ni Cu Zn Ga Ge As Se Br Kr

  • PoKey Captain Scans Tight Virgin Crew Members Fer Cold Night Cuddles. Zany Gray Germs Are Sold ByKremlin.
  • In reverse order: Kry Brother! SeAs of Germany and Gaul sink copper ships Nice and Cold From Manx toCrimea, Vancouver to Timor, and Scandinavia to the CaliforniaKoast.[32]

Groups

Group 1, The alkali metals

H Li Na K Rb Cs Fr

  • Highly Nasty Kids Rub Cats Fur[p 1]

Group 2, The alkaline earth metals

Be Mg Ca Sr Ba Ra

  • Bearded Muggers Came Straight Back Rapidly.
  • Beer Mugs Can Serve Bar Rats.[p 1]

Group 13

B Al Ga In Tl

  • Boring Aluminum Galley’s Indigestible Tally-list[33]
  • Bears Always Give Indians Trouble[p 1]

Group 14

C Si Ge Sn(tin) Pb(lead)

  • Can Silly Germans Snatch Lead[p 1]

Group 15 (pnicogens)

N P As Sb Bi

  • New Popes Assign Subordinate Bishops.[p 1]

Group 16 (chalcogens)

O S Se Te Po

  • Oversized Sailors Sell and Tell about Polo cologne
  • Old TSangpo Seem Terribly Polluted.[p 1]

Group 17, The halogens

F Cl Br I At

  • Fleeing Chlorine-layers & Bromine, I’d Astonish[33]
  • Fairy Clowns Broil Innocent Ants.[p 1]

Group 18, Noble gases

He Ne Ar Kr Xe Rn

  • Hero Needs Arguable Kryptic Xes. Right-on.[33]
  • He Never Arrived; Karen eXited with Ron.[p 1]

Transition metals

First

Sc Ti V Cr Mn Fe Co Ni Cu Zn

  • Scary Tiny Vicious Creatures Mean Females Come Nightly to Club Z.[p 1]
  • Scabby Tim Violates Crummy, Mangy, Ferrets, Cows and Nice Cute Zebras[19]

Second

Y Zr Nb Mo Tc Ru Rh Pd Ag Cd

  • Yes Sir, NobMost Technicians Rub Rod’s Pale Silver Cadillac

Third

La … Hf Ta W Re Os Ir Pt Au Hg

  • Larry’s Half Taken, Wendy Reached Out Her Plate Audibly, Helga

 

Lanthanides&Actinides

Lanthanides

(La) Ce Pr Nd Pm Sm Eu Gd Tb Dy Ho Er Tm Yb Lu

  • Laand Ceremonies: Presiding Neo-dimwits Promise Some-mere European Goddole, Turbid Dysproteinemia HolesErban (urban) Tool-mans Year-tear-book Lucidly.
  • Little Cute People Need Plenty Sex Every Given Time Despite Having Enough Through Young Love andCurrently Parties Never Provide Sexy English Girls That Drink Heavily,Even Though You Look.

Actinides

(Ac) Th Pa U Np Pu Am Cm Bk Cf Es Fm Md No Lr

  • Radiant Acting Thoroughly Protects yoUr Nepotism, Plutocratic America Cures-me & Berkeley California,Einstein Firmly Mended Noble Lawreins.[33]
  • Three Planets: Uranus, Neptune, and Pluto. Amy Cured Berkeley, California. Einstein and Fermi Made NobleLaws.

Miscellaneous

First 56

He Li Be B C N O F Ne Na Mg Al Si P S Cl Ar
K Ca Sc Ti V Cr Mn Fe Co Ni Cu Zn Ga Ge As Se Br Kr
Rb Sr Y Zr Nb Mo Tc Ru Rh Pd Ag Cd In Sn Sb Te I Xe
Cs Ba

  • Here Lies Benjamin Bones. Cry Not Oh Friend Needlessly.

Nature Magnifies All Simple People Sometimes Clowns And

Kings Can Scream Till Vast Crowds MoanFear Conquers Neither Courageous Zealous

Gallant Gents. As Seen Brown Karate Robes Strip Yobs. Zurich Noble Mortals Track Ruddy Rhubarb. Paid SilverCandid

Indian Sons Sobbing Tears In Xcess Cease Bawling

Abundance of elements

On Earth’s crust

Oxygen >; Silicon >; Aluminum >; Iron(Fe) >; Calcium >; Magnesium >; Sodium(Na) >; Potassium(K)

(The rest makes only 1%)

  • Oh see Al Fee Cah Mig NacK.

Biochemistry

Krebs Cycle

To remember Krebs Cycle (Citric acid cycle, Tricarboxylic acid cycle)

Citrate→Aconitate→Isocitrate→Oxalosuccinate→α-Ketoglutarate→Succinate→Fumarate→Malate→Oxaloacetate

  • Caesar’s Armies Invaded Other Kingdoms Searching For Many Oranges.

Elements necessary for agriculture

The elements necessary for agriculture – which are

Carbon, Hydrogen, Calcium, iron (Fe), Magnesium, Manganese, copper(Cu), Molybdenum, Chlorine, Boron

  • C(see) Hopkins CaFeMighty-good ManCu(see your) Money, hope they are Closed or out of Business.[i 4]

For remembering macronutrients which are,

Carbon, Hydrogen, Oxygen, Phosphorus, Potassium, Nitrogen, Sulfur, Calcium, iron(Fe), and Magnesium.

  • C. HOPKiN’S CaFe Mg (C. Hopkins coffee mug)

Essential amino acid

Isoleucine, Leucine, Lysine, Methionine, Phenylalanine, Threonine, Tryptophan, Valine, Histidine, Asparagine, (Selenocysteine – usually omitted)

  • PVT TIM HaLLand TT HALL Very IMPortant.
  • LIFT HIM KIW(V)I
  • TV FILM HW(R)K.
  • Any Help In Learning These Little Molecules Proves Truly Valuable.This method begins with the two amino acids that need some qualifications as to their requirements.
  • There as [a] fat man [that] hated vanilla icing, [but] loved Kit-Kats.

By-Bikul Koirala